Work, also known as labour and occupational work, is a type of human activity that requires effort to produce a result. This effort can take many forms: an artisan carving a piece of wood, a baker making bread, a mechanic repairing a car, or an accountant filing taxes. The activity of work can take place in a variety of settings and situations, such as at home, in the workplace, or in an outdoor environment. Work is usually accomplished for a living, and can be measured in units such as the joule (J).
A common definition of work is the action of moving an object over some distance. It is sometimes referred to as the increase in an object’s energy, for it transfers energy to the body. If the force is applied in the direction of motion, this can be viewed as positive work, since the energy is being added to the object. However, if the force is opposing the motion, then this can be seen as negative work, since the energy is being removed from the object.
The quantity of work is usually expressed as the product of the force applied to the object and its displacement, where the magnitude of the displacement is taken as the dot product of the vectors of the force and the displacement. Work is a scalar quantity, meaning that it has only magnitude, but not direction. Since the vectors are parallel to each other, they add up to the magnitude of the force and displacement.
Work can be done by any object that moves, such as a batsman hitting a ball, a boat sailing in the river, a cyclist paddling their cycle, or a cobbler polishing shoes. It can also be done by a human, such as lifting a heavy box. The amount of work required to lift an object depends on its mass, and the acceleration at which it is lifted.
As humans evolved from hunter-gatherers to industrial workers, the importance of work was emphasized. Work became associated with prosperity and morality, and was often rewarded with money or status. Today, work continues to play a key role in our lives, providing structure and meaning. It allows us to pursue our goals and ambitions, and enjoy a good life.
Redefining work requires a change in the way that organizations think about where, when, and how they do their work. This change must extend across leadership and management capabilities, operations, work environments, and the systems of performance measurement, compensation, and reward. Companies that succeed in redefining their work will be able to cultivate the curiosity, imagination, creativity, intuition, and social intelligence of their employees. This will allow them to create value for their customers and make a difference in the world.