December 30, 2023

Types of Bottles

A narrow-necked container made of impermeable glass, plastic, or another material in various shapes and sizes that is used to store liquids and semiliquids and sealed with an internal or external stopper or closure. It may also be induction sealed (see below). Also called bottle, jug, or flask; sometimes referred to as a wine bottle, spirit bottle, or beer bottle in some countries.

The most popular type of bottle is a clear glass vessel that is usually narrower at the neck than at the base and with a flat top that is often decorated. Other types of bottles include colored or frosted glass containers; these typically have narrower necks than other containers and a more pronounced curved shoulder. Bottles can be produced in a variety of shapes, sizes, and finishes; some have decoration on the body or neck; others have embossing.

Embossing – Raised lettering, designs, or graphics on the surface of a bottle formed by incising or engraving on the inside mold surfaces. See the Bottle Body & Mold Seams page for more information.

Neck – The portion of the neck where the cross-section of the body grows smaller to join the finish. The neck is shaped to accommodate a specific size of closure and may have a thread (see below). See the Bottle Necks page for more information.

Finish – The extreme upper surface of the neck (sometimes called the lip by some) and the rim. Traditionally the term neck has only been used to refer to the area of the finish extending to the brim of the bottle; however, some manufacturers use the term rim to refer to the entire finish – including the collar and lip – when describing a single-part or two-part finish. See the Bottle Finishes page for more information.

Heel – The lowest point of the bottle where the body (sidewall) curves down to the base. The heel may have a small recessed spot that serves as registration device for labeling and decorating equipment. It is common for the heel to have a stippled finish in the mold to mask scratches that may occur during handling. See the Bottle Bases page for more information.

Most television episodes revolve around moving the plot forward and keeping the audience invested. Bottle episodes offer a break from this formula by slowing down and forcing the characters to confront their issues in one location. They can be powerful, thought-provoking episodes that take the viewer out of their comfort zone – and can often be the most memorable of the season. Here are a few examples from some of our favorite shows.

What Is Work?

Work is a fundamental part of every person’s life. It’s how we earn a living, support our families, pay the bills and make a contribution to society. It’s also how we gain skills, knowledge and experiences that help us through the ups and downs of life.

It’s easy to see work changing other people – but it changes us, too. Think about the time, energy and relationships you put into your job and consider the ways it’s changed who you are: the wisdom you’ve gained, the mentors you’ve encountered, the positions that forced you to stretch and grow. Work can even give you a sense of purpose and meaning in your life.

Despite its importance, our concept of work is not always well understood. In particular, some things we might think of as hard work do not count as such in the scientific definition: for something to be considered “work” in physics, there must be a force exerted on an object and the object must have displacement (or motion). This means that things like a person carrying a heavy briefcase or swinging a weight around a circle are not actually “work” in the sense of transferring energy from one place to another, even though you may have been exhausted after doing them!

The SI unit for work is the joule, named after 19th-century English physicist James Prescott Joule. Other units include newton-metre, erg, watt hour and kilocalorie hour. Since work is a form of energy, it has the same physical dimensions as heat: it can be measured in joules per second or kilograms per square metre.

While there are many examples of work in everyday life, there are three situations when it is said that no work has been done:

When the magnitude of a force and its displacement have identical directions, then work is zero. When the direction of a force is aligned with the direction of displacement, then work is positive. Otherwise, it is negative.

An example of work is a batsman hitting a ball. This transfers a large amount of energy from the batter’s body to the ball, which moves away from the batsman.

Other examples include a car engine working to push a vehicle, a coolie carrying baggage up or down the steps of a railway station, and a cyclist riding a bicycle. These activities transfer energy to the objects that are displaced, which is what makes work happen. This also explains why you get tired after carrying a heavy briefcase or lifting luggage up and down stairs – your muscles are doing work. However, when a force is applied to an object and there is no displacement, it does no work. For instance, when a person holds a briefcase against the wall, or when a book falls off a shelf and lands on the ground. In these cases, there is a force and there is motion, but no work is done.