Work is any effort expended to change the position of an object, or to move it a distance. This article focuses on the physical work that can be done by a force, such as the gravitational work that causes a ball to fall to the ground when it is dropped. The energy in this case is equal to the ball’s weight (a force) multiplied by its distance from the point of impact, or its velocity (a vector). Other types of work, such as mechanical, electrical, and thermal, are discussed elsewhere.
Work can also refer to the social and psychological processes of people involved in work, including the time, effort, passion, and commitment a person puts into their job. It can be a source of pride and dignity, as well as financial stability. It can be a means of creating a sense of community among people with common interests and goals, as is seen in trade unions. It can also be a source of power and status, as demonstrated by the privileges often granted to upper management in organizations.
It is important to understand that work is not just something a person does for money or prestige. It is a fundamental part of human nature, and it can affect every aspect of a person’s life. It can even affect the microscopic properties of a system, such as temperature.
Physically, work is the scalar product of the magnitude of the force applied and the displacement travelled, or the magnitude of the force’s direction and the displacement’s direction. It is expressed in SI units as Joules (J), named after 19th century English physicist James Prescott Joule.
Although both force and displacement are vector quantities, work is a scalar quantity, meaning it has no direction. In fact, if the force and displacement are perpendicular to each other, there is no work done.
When the displacement and force are in the same direction, it is said to be positive work, or a positive energy transfer. Conversely, if the force is the same as the displacement, it is negative work, or a negative energy transfer.
There are three cases in which no work is done, or no energy is transferred. When the force is zero, such as when an object floats on water, there is no work done. When the force is aligned with the displacement, but the displacement is zero or perpendicular to the direction of the force, it is called no work because there is no change in the object’s position.
In addition, work can be done on a body through compression or elongation as well as by displacing it. The result is a change in the state of the body, which is known as potential energy, or kinetic energy. It can also be converted to heat or electricity, but not vice versa. Work can have a profound effect on us as individuals, and the relationships, values, and beliefs we develop as we do our jobs. It can give us discipline, wisdom, and skill. It can help us to build communities and find meaning in our lives, and it can give us the opportunity to be creative and take risks. It can also jaded us, hurt our self-esteem, and stifle our passions. It can also rob us of the ability to enjoy ourselves and influence others, or lead us to see other people as problems or means to our own ends.